GEOGRAPHY
 Location:  Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area total: 329,750 sq km
land: 328,550 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Coastline:  4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Climate:  tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
PEOPLE
Population:  25,274,132 (July 2008 est.)
Median age:  0-14 years: 31.8% (male 4,135,013/female 3,898,761)
15-64 years: 63.3% (male 8,026,755/female 7,965,332)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 548,970/female 699,302) (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 22.44 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Nationality:  noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
Ethnic groups:  Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)
Religions: Muslim, Buddhist, Daoist, Hindu, Christian, Sikh; note – in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia
Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken, the largest are Iban and Kadazan
GOVERNMENT
Country name:  conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaysia
Government type:  constitutional monarchy
Capital:  Kuala Lumpur
note: Putrajaya is referred to as administrative center not capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions:  13 states (negeri-negeri, singular – negeri) Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, and Terengganu; and one federal territory (wilayah persekutuan) with three components, city of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Independence:  31 August 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:  Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August (1957)
Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Flag description:  14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US
ECONOMY
GDP (purchasing power parity):  $361.2 billion (2007 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:  6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP – per capita:  purchasing power parity $14,500 (2007 est.)
GDP – composition by sector:  agriculture: 9.9%
industry: 45.3%
services: 44.8% (2007 est.)
Budget: revenues: revenues: $40.69 billion
expenditures: $46.7 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:  41.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture – products:  Peninsular Malaysia – rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah – subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak – rubber, pepper, timber
Industries:  Peninsular Malaysia – rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah – logging, petroleum production; Sarawak – agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Exports:  $176.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports – commodities:  electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals
Exports – partners:  US 15.6%, Singapore 14.6%, Japan 9.1%, China 8.8%, Thailand 5%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2007)
Imports:  $139.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports – commodities:  electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Imports – partners:  Japan 13%, China 12.9%, Singapore 11.5%, US 10.8%, Taiwan 5.7%, Thailand 5.3%, South Korea 4.9%, Germany 4.6%, Indonesia 4.2% (2007)
Currency code:  MYR
Fiscal year: calendar year
COMMUNICATIONS
Telephone system:  general assessment: modern system; international service excellent
domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity exceeds 110 per 100 persons
international: country code – 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:  AM 35, FM 391, shortwave 15 (2001)
Internet country code:  .my
Internet users:  15.868 million (2007)
TRANSPORTATION
Railways:  total: 1,890 km
standard gauge: 57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,833 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:  total: 98,721 km
paved: 80,280 km (including 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,441 km (2004)
Waterways:  7,200 km
note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km, Sabah 1,500 km, Sarawak 2,500 km (2005)
Airports:  116 (2007), 36 with paved runways
Ports and harbors:  Bintulu, Johor, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang, Tanjung Pelepas

Source: CIA Factbook